ADJECTIVES are words that modify a noun in order to describe the quality of that particular noun, its quantity or extent or just to distinguish the noun from something else. Adjectives can have all kinds of other functions, including usage as nouns. The first adjective in the list below, for example, is often used as a pronoun.
ADVERBS are words that modify verbs, adjectives, other adverbs, prepositions, phrases, clauses or just sentences expressing some relation of manner or quality, place, time, degree, number, cause, denial, opposition or affirmation and sometimes serving to connect and express comment on the content of a clause. Many adverbs can change functions; for example, the first adverb, “as” can also be used as a conjunction, a pronoun, or a preposition.
Guam is a U.S. territory in the Western Pacific Ocean, best known because of (adjective) importance during WWII. Guam is just one island, although it is part of the Mariana Islands and is its (adjective) island. Indigenous people populated Guam for at least 4,000 years before Ferdinand Magellan happened upon it in 1521. Spain established a settlement (adverb) in 1668, complete with Catholic missionaries, and the island became important in the history of European colonialism (adverb) a stopover for the Spanish galleons that crossed the Pacific Ocean. These ships carried silver, plants and animals from Acapulco to Manila as (adverb) as passengers. But they never stopped at Guam on their way back because the winds were (adjective).
During this period of Spanish occupation, (adjective) than 90% of the islands’ native population, called Chamorro, died from Spanish diseases or married non-native settlers under Spanish rule. New settlers, (adverb) from the Philippines and the Caroline Islands, were brought in to repopulate the islands. , (adverb) some of the native population recovered, and today there is a mixture of the Chamorro, Filipino and Carolinian languages on the island. The recovery of the Chamorro culture is (adverb) due to the fact that the Spanish forced them to leave the Northern Mariana Islands and live on Guam in order to convert them to Christianity. Guam was controlled by Spain until 1898 when it, , (adverb) was forced to surrender to the U.S. during the Spanish-American War. Spain sold the remainder of the Marianas, along with the Caroline Islands, to the German Empire in 1899. (adverb) Guam was formally ceded to the U.S. as part of the Treaty of Paris. The 1898 treaty ended the Spanish-American War, and Spain was forced to cede Puerto Rico, Cuba, parts of the West Indies and the Philippines as well.
Now we will skip to the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor , (adverb) when Guam, the only U.S.-held island in the region before WWII, was captured by the Japanese just hours after the bombing of Pearl Harbor. It was (adverb) a prize. When you read about the Northern Mariana Islands during this war, you will learn that the Japanese brought Chamorros from (adjective) islands to help them administer newly conquered Guam. Japan occupied the island for 2 ½ years, torturing, beheading, raping and starving its native population.
In 1944, U.S. troops landed on Guam on July 21st and recaptured the island in August, after 3 (adjective) weeks of battle. Over 18,040 Japanese were killed because they refused to surrender, and the Americans (adverb) took 485 POWs. The Americans suffered 1,747 causalities and 6,053 wounded. The Japanese commander of the island had been killed in the first week of battle, and the Lieutenant General who took (adjective) for him committed ritual suicide. July 21st is a date (adjective) commemorated in Guam as Liberation Day. Just as an aside, American troops invaded Tinian, (adjective) one of the Mariana Islands, about the same time as they did Guam, and after capturing it, used it as the take off point for the Enola Gay a year later. The Enola Gay was the Boeing B-29 that dropped the atomic bomb on Hiroshima on August 6, 1945. The plane’s unusual name came from the pilot’s mother. The Japanese surrendered on deck of USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay on Sept 2, 1945, but there were still a (adjective) hold-outs; the last group of Japanese soldiers only surrendered on Saipan on December 1st of that year. On Guam, a Japanese soldier named Yokoi, who claimed he (adverb) knew the war had ended, hid in a cave until 1972.
Today Guam is (adverb) to being a U.S. territory, and its 174,455 residents are American citizens who do not have voting rights, and it is classified as a non-self-governing territory. Its capital is Hagåtña and it supports itself mostly through tourism and the US military base there. Its economy is considered to be in expansion, (adverb) though about 23% of their population is below poverty level and over 7% is unemployed.
Mussolini was executed on April 28th
Hitler died on April 30th
German forces in Italy & Berlin surrendered on May 2
Other German forces throughout Europe surrendered on May 4, 5 & 6
Winston Churchill broadcast announcement of ceasefire on May
Tattoos have been around for more than 5,000 years. Egyptians, for example, used tattoos to differentiate between peasants and slaves, a kind of social branding. But ink art, which is what some fans like to call tattooing, has really exploded in the past 25 years. But not all of us have succumbed to this fad. And many of us who don’t have a tattoo have a favorite mug. Having a tattoo or becoming attached to a mug are not dissimilar. According to research, 60% of Americans say they have an emotional attachment to a favorite mug. And about 40% said their special mug was irreplaceable, and about 1/3 of those said they would be devastated if it broke. Personally, I think that most of these people don’t have tattoos. Mugs and tattoos are both an extension of our personalities, and both express the way we would like the world to perceive us. That is not to mention, of course, that those of us who have tattoos or mugs are often irrationally attached to them.