1 – Things were looking up for the Navajos in the late 1800s, after their release from captivity and at the beginning of their livestock-based economy. However, the white population that was bringing railroads to New Mexico were also involved in the livestock industry. The government soon decided to sell off the land that hadn’t been allotted to the Navajos, labeling it as .
2 – Railroad companies and powerful investors and ranchers all purchased land around them, creating “checkerboard areas” – land that was divided a lot like a patchwork quilt, leading to many ownership disputes and confusion. The Navajos were generally not considered citizens or friends even though they now resided within a U. S. .
3 – Trading posts begun to become prevalent, and they introduced the Navajos to a cash economy. Trading had always been a part of their culture, but they only began to sell their handicrafts and earn money in the late 1800s. This made them into better craftsmen, especially when working with silver or stones and weaving. The transactions between the Natives and the Anglo traders were not always fair or .
4 – After the Navajos learned that there was a market for their products, many of them wanted to trade their products for firearms or whiskey. Some fell into debt-relationships with the traders. Others began to pawn their personal possessions to the traders. But there were some who formed healthy relationships with traders and became respected as humans and .
5 – Many Navajos, both men and women, had volunteered to serve during WWI. They fought in France, Germany and Italy and received numerous awards and citations for bravery under .
6 – A Navajo Tribal Council was created in the early 1920s, and the Navajo communities were organized into .
7 – Around that same time, the federal government began a program to forcibly remove Native American children from their families and place them in boarding schools. The children were not allowed to see their families and not allowed to speak their language or practice their cultural traditions. Families hid their children so they wouldn’t be taken, and many of those who were taken ran away from school. Most people agree that it was another way for the U.S. government to eradicate the American Indian population. The government had hoped that these children would be absorbed into the culture that was .
8 – During the Great Depression in the 1930s, President Franklin Roosevelt’s administration ordered a reduction of all Navajo livestock because of soil erosion. Their sheep, cattle and horses were reduced by 50%, and many Navajos lost their only source of .
9 – Navajo is a language of extreme complexity. Its syntax, tonal qualities and dialects make it unintelligible to anyone without extensive exposure and training. It had no alphabet or symbols and was spoken only on the Navajo lands of the American Southwest. It was an unwritten language when World War II .
10 – When the U.S. entered WWII in 1941, the Navajos again left their land and reservations to join the armed forces. It is estimated that more than 3,600 young Navajo men and women joined the armed forces during WWII, which is proportionately the highest percentage of any U.S. ethnic .
11 – After the Japanese Empire attacked Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, Phillip Johnston, the son of a missionary who was brought up on a Navajo reservation and one of the few non-Navajos who spoke their language, played an important role in the outcome of WWII. This WWI veteran convinced the U.S. Marines to use Navajos to serve as radio corps operators and transmit secret .
12 – At that time, the Japanese possessed an elite group of well-trained English-speaking soldiers that were able to intercept U.S. communications, and then sabotage the message or issue false commands to ambush American .
13 – In May, 1942, the first Navajos were recruited and sent to boot camp in California. There they created the Navajo code, developed a dictionary and numerous words for military terms. All the words had to be memorized during training, nothing was written down. The Navajo recruits were called Code Talkers and were immediately deployed to the Pacific .
14 – The developers of the original code assigned Navajo words to represent about 450 frequently used military terms that did not exist in the Navajo language. We cannot help but wonder if the United States government saw the irony in using a language they had tried to eradicate during their boarding school programs. The wartime code used words such as “dah-he-tih-hi” (hummingbird) to mean fighter plane, and “besh-lo” (iron fish) to mean submarine, and a machine gun became rapid-fire gun, and a battleship became whale, all in the Navajo .
15 – The Code Talkers were especially important in the Battle of Iwo Jima, a 3-month battle in which the U.S. Marine Corps captured the island of Iwo Jima from the Imperial Japanese Army. Six Navajo Code Talkers worked around the clock during the first 48 hours of battle, ensuring the success of their .
16 – Navajo Code Talkers were used throughout the Korean War and into the beginning to the Vietnam War. It is the only spoken military code that has never been deciphered. After WWII, Lieutenant General Seizo Arisue, the Japanese Chief of Intelligence, said that while they were able to decipher the codes used by the U.S. Army and Army Air Corps, the code used by the Marines was never .
17 – But coming home wasn’t easy. The Navajos had been respected during wartime, but there were no parades for them when they returned home. They made their way back to their reservations on buses, and went back to be treated like .
You can plate appetizers on or in many things. Fill in the blanks with on or in: Deviled eggs a platter Figs with bacon a plate Spinach & Yogurt dip a bowl Bacon, lettuce & tomatoes toothpicks Chicken croquettes napkins Oysters with turkey bacon a tiered cake plate Cold cuts a breadboard Raw veggies & dips a Lazy Susan Cheese…
Blackberries – Blueberries – Raspberries – Strawberries Nutritious food is nourishing and efficient as food in the sense that it gives you the sufficient amount of nutrients such as vitamins, carbohydrates and proteins that you need to survive. Healthy food is food that promotes good health, in other words, prevents illness and keeps you younger longer. I. All of the berries above are healthy and nutritious. However, according to nutritional content, total carbohydrates,…