1 – A strange thing happened after World War II. Not only did the Navajos return to the USA with no fanfare, but also no one even knew of their heroism during the post-war period. The code talkers were sworn to secrecy and the Department of Defense didn’t declassify the code until 1968. That was 23 years after their acts of patriotism, and few people took .
2 – The Navajos soon entered another difficult time in their history. From 1966 until the beginning of the 1970s, the Federal Government ran a program in which Indian children were taken from their homes on reservations and put up for adoption or placed in foster care in white American .
3 – Foster care is a commonly-used state government program in which children, who are not eligible for adoption, are temporarily cared for in private homes. The idea of foster care is that, hopefully, these children will eventually be returned to their parents, who might be imprisoned or hospitalized or in drug treatment institutions, as soon as the parents are deemed able to care for them
4 – The government program did not take only Navajos; it took Native American children from every ethnic group. One third of all Indian children were placed in non-Indian homes during these years. The government called it “enlightened adoption”. They believed that that bringing these children up in white homes would integrate them into a more productive society as well as eliminate racial .
5 – Christian churches helped with the government project. Families from the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (Mormons) adopted thousands of Indian children to live and to work on their farms. Many Catholic orphanages also took children, and a good number of those were later adopted or went into foster care. But the biggest organizations to take Indian children and then place them in homes were African-American adoption .
6 – Most Indian families were heartbroken when they had their children taken away from them, as were the children. They saw this, along with the 1864 Long Walk to imprisonment in Bosque Redondo in 1864, as well as the boarding school experiment in the early 1900s as an atrocious violation of their .
7 – The Indian Child Welfare Act was passed in 1978, returning authority over Indian children to tribal governments. Congress had finally seen the light and did something to try to protect Indian culture and tribal .
8 – Some adoptees, after becoming adults, made their way home to their reservations. But they had forgotten their language and didn’t look or act like “real” Indians. This was especially hard because most of them had never really looked or felt like “real” white people. Indians who had stayed on the reservation called them “apples” which meant red on the outside and white on the inside, causing them to feel more .
9 – In 1968, the Department of Defense had finally declassified the Code and revealed the role of the Code Talkers. No one noticed much. It wasn’t until 1981 that the Marine Corps broke their silence and went to the Navajo Nation and recruited another all-Navajo platoon to honor the 39th anniversary of the first 29 Navajo Code talkers. Many of the young men selected were grandsons, great-nephews and cousins of the WWII Navajo Code Talkers. This second all-Navajo Platoon existed from 1981 to 1985. This was the first and only time that the Marine Corps publicly acknowledged the Code Talkers for their contribution WWII
10 – Then, in July 2001, fifty-six years after the end of WWII, the surviving Code Talkers were given the Gold Congressional Medal of Honor in Washington, D.C. Only 5 were alive and only 4 were able to attend. It is interesting to note that other Native Americans, the Sioux, Choctaw, and Comanche, used their native languages as codes during WWII for the U.S. Army, but were not honored until 2008. In 2013, members of 33 other tribes also received prestigious .
11 – Many of the Code Talkers had been forced to attend boarding schools in their childhoods, and they remembered being punished severely for speaking their native languages. But many also remembered that the military training imposed in the boarding schools helped them to adapt to military .
12 – In 1990, the Navajo Nation elected a tribal president for the first time, but that didn’t mean their lives became easy. Along with other Native American tribes, they rank near the bottom of nearly every American social, health, and economic .
13 – Navajos do administer their own health care facilities nowadays, and at the time of this writing, are planning to develop an American Indian medical school in New Mexico. They have many health problems, such as diabetes (more than twice that of all other Americans), alcoholism (with a death rate among 15-24 year olds more than 10 times the rate for the same-age population in the rest of the United States), SIDS (more than twice that of other Americans), high suicide rates (between 2 and 3 times greater than other Americans, depending on the age group), pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions (four times greater than the rate for the all the United States combined), fire and burn injuries (3 time more than children and youth in the rest of the USA) and drowning (twice as much as children of all other races). As a nation, the USA needs to work on Native American poverty and health .
14 – Most of these problems are exacerbated by poverty; 43% of Navajos are unemployed and 42% live below the poverty rate. 56% have high school degrees, but only 7% have college degrees. Navajos haven’t mixed with other races much; 86.3% of them are .
15 – The Navajo Nation is approximately 16 million acres, most of which has no telephone service, and some of which has no electricity and no indoor plumbing. They receive some revenue from mining, some from sales of crafts (silver, turquoise, stonework, pottery, baskets and weaving) some from tourism, and some from oil, gas and coal rights. American Indian tribes have the right to use their land, but they do not own it although they govern their land as sovereign nations. All the Native land together comprises just 2% of the United States — this is the land that past governments chose and forced the Indians to live on. Donald Trump’s administration has proposed to put this land into private ownership, for the reason that it may contain about a fifth of America’s oil, gas and coal .
16 – In the past 10 years or so, the Navajos have been building some casinos, and they have 4 large ones in New Mexico. Gambling is illegal in New Mexico, but as Native American land is treated as sovereign nations,they are allowed to open and run casinos if they choose to. The Navajo casinos have created more than 1,300 jobs, and 80% of those are Navajo. It remains to be seen, however, if the casinos will create more problems such as alcoholism, crime and compulsive gambling or if they will, in the long run, be .
17 – Christian missionaries have been trying to convert the Navajos for well over 100 years, and the result is that nowadays many Navajos mix the elements of Christianity with their native beliefs. The Navajos founded a church, called the Native American Church, that mixes the two religions. The church permits the legal use of peyote in religious ceremonies. Native Americans have been using peyote, a small cactus that contains psychoactive alkaloids, for spiritual reasons for well over 5,000 years, but today only members of the church are allowed to transport, possess, or use peyote, and then only for religious .
FYI is an acronym, and an acronym is a word formed by combining the first letters of each word of a name, such as NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) that is frequently seen in the news. Another one you probably know is AIDS, which is an acronym for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. Sometimes acronyms are pronounced as a word as in NATO and AIDS, and sometimes the letters are pronounced individually, such as FYI (for your information). And most of the time they are not even pronounced, as they are used mostly in social media, business communication and Internet. But we do hear CNN (Cable News Network) reporters saying ASAP frequently, which means As Soon As Possible and is hard to pronounce.
Sometimes acronyms become words, such as the word scuba. Everybody knows that word, but few know it started out as an acronym for Self-Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus.
Another acronym that became a word is laser, which began as the acronym Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. Most of us are very pleased that these two words became acronyms.
For now, try to incorporate FYI and ASAP into your daily communications, and don’t spend too much time remembering what AIDS and LASER and SCUBA really mean. But you should be able to recognize NATO as it has become a big issue in North America and Europe.
Here are six business acronyms that you should know if you are a businessperson, and maybe aspire to if you are in middle management. Which one would be the lowest stress and the highest salary?