c. Government agency for the purpose of controlling Central America
d. Financial holdings in Cuba
e. Colonial Ruler
f. Territorial Governor
The Miami area was originally known as Biscayne Bay County. It was a wilderness, but also a valuable building site. In the late 1800s, settlements began to pop inside what are Miami’s city limits today. The federal government was offering 160 free acres to homesteaders. But the area needed a woman’s touch. A widow named Julia Tuttle came to Florida, along with her two children; one of them was her sickly daughter, Fannie.
Julia Tuttle’s life had not always been easy. After her husband died Cleveland, Ohio, she had a tough time financially and had to turn her home into a tearoom and a boarding house in order to survive. At one time she wrote to her old friend, John D. Rockefeller, the oil magnate, to ask him to help her get a job as housekeeper in a Florida hotel owned by a railroad magnate, Henry Morrison Flagler. But the position had already been filled and she didn’t get the job. Julia’s father-in-law had been Rockefeller’s first boss.
But after her father’s death, when she inherited some money and her father’s land in Southern Florida, she did not hesitate to relocate there. She liked Florida, where her parents had lived, even though they lived in an undeveloped part of it. In 1891 she moved there by way of railway, a steamship and a barge, bringing her children, some cows and her furniture. She bought 640 acres (where the city of Miami is now located) with her inheritance money and this land included the old Fort Dallas, built in 1863 and left from the Seminole Wars. Fort Dallas had a stone house, and she converted it into her home. She was on the shore of Biscayne Bay. Her neighbors across the river were William and Mary Brickell, a couple that had the same pioneering spirit as Julia. They operated a trading post and a post office.
Julia Tuttle established herself, and then decided that she needed to take a leading role in the project of making the growing settlements on the Miami River into a city. She truly believed that the wilderness that was Miami at that time could be turned a prosperous city that would become a trade center for North and South America. And she knew that railroad transportation was necessary to attract development. She felt that the Miami area needed a mom. It took her years and some female creativity, but she eventually convinced Henry Morrison Flagler, one of the founders of Standard Oil as well as the founder of what became the Florida East Coast Railway, to extend his railroad all the way down to Miami. And her friend John D. Rockefeller just happened to be a partner of Henry Flagler. Both were railroad magnates by that time, and Flagler was the man she had once asked for a job.
At first, no one wanted to invest in transportation down to the swamps of Southern Florida. Studies were conducted, and Julia Tuttle visited Henry Flagler and wrote him letters, but she was unable to convince him or anyone that the Miami area was ripe for development, and in particular, railroad investment. Then Mother Nature stepped in to help Julia . Mother Nature arranged for 3 disasters, which came to be called The Great Freezes of 1894-1895. They devastated the orange groves and vegetable farms in Central and Northern Florida. Not only did they wipe out the fruit and vegetables, but also the personal fortunes of the planters. Henry Flagler’s transportation business did a sudden downturn, and even millionaires don’t like that. Broke, some planters were even giving up and moving back up North.
That’s when Julia Tuttle, a go-getter, sent him a package. No one is sure if it contained foliage or orange blossoms, but we do know that her gift proved to him that Southern Miami was below the frost line. Flagler, who was watching his railroad transportation business almost drop to a standstill, caved. Julia Tuttle had proved to him that the climate in Southern Florida was more favorable for farmers than it was in Northern Florida. He agreed to extend his railroad tracks the east coast of Florida and to develop towns and hotels along the way.
This was Julia’s dream, but it came at a price. She had to give Flagler half of her 640 acres, and she also had to convince her neighbors, the Brickells, to also donate acreage. That gave Flagler property on both sides of the Miami River. The first train arrived in August of 1896, and that same month saw the opening of Miami’s first newspaper and bank. Miami was officially incorporated as a city in that same year of 1896. (Florida had been a state since 1845.) And the new city had a mother.
Julia Tuttle turned what had been her bunkhouse into a hotel. She had the building jacked up, enlarged, set a brick foundation, and turned it into the first big hotel in Miami. Unfortunately, it burned down in 1899. But by 1897, Flagler had a fancy hotel built and running, the Royal Palm Hotel. It became a popular resort for the millionaires of the time such as Rockefeller, Andrew Carnegie and the Vanderbilt family. It is said the Miami’s first bakery and first dairy were founded by Julia Tuttle. It is also reported that she outlawed liquor sales (within) the city limits.
Julia Tuttle died in September, 1898 at age 49. The Causeway of Interstate 195 is named her, and there is a statue of her in Bayfront Park. Remember her grit, sense of adventure, and resilience when you visit Miami.
The word cliffhanger comes from cliffs. Duh. Cliffs are vertical, or nearly vertical, rocks that have been formed by erosion and weathering. There are lots of famous cliffs, but the first ones that come to my mind are the White Cliffs of Dover, probably because there was a popular World War II song about them that was part of my childhood, and also because they are on the historical English coastline.
When one thinks of cliffhangers, England and its gothic novels always come to mind. Cliffhangers are the kind of story, book or movie that uses suspense either at the end of an episode or a scene. A good example was the way the final episode of Game of Thrones, season 5, was done. Jon Snow was dead. Or was he? Those of us who sweated it out until season 6 was aired were never really sure. The writers used old-fashioned melodrama, suspense and uncertainty, and the audience was left as if hanging from a cliff in a state of tension and apprehension. And that’s a true cliffhanger.
This part of the blog will not be able to offer any nail-biting cliffhangers, but it will have classes in series, and I hope they will be interesting enough that you will want to come back and read what happens next, even if you don’t lose sleep anticipating the next chapter. Enjoy.
Blackberries – Blueberries – Raspberries – Strawberries Nutritious food is nourishing and efficient as food in the sense that it gives you the sufficient amount of nutrients such as vitamins, carbohydrates and proteins that you need to survive. Healthy food is food that promotes good health, in other words, prevents illness and keeps you younger longer. I. All of the berries above are healthy and nutritious. However, according to nutritional content, total carbohydrates,…
I learned to bake with baking tins, so that’s what I call them, although today they are often made of glass, ceramic, silicone, aluminum, aluminized steel, carbon steel, non-stick anodized aluminum, cast aluminum, and iron. Many people call them baking pans. It doesn’t matter. The only thing that you need to keep in mind when you are buying new baking essentials is…